IS APOSTASY/APOSTASIS AND APHISTEMI PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL?
And Does the Greek word for Apostasis (Apostasy or Abscess) refer to the Rapture Departure or Departure from The Faith?
By James Sundquist
“I think you are on the precipice of uncovering the smoking gun concerning the surgical procedures from the koine period. I have never heard anyone other than yourself articulate this. It will put to rest forever the claim that apostasia doesn’t refer to physical departure in the koine period. You remind me of the timex watch. You take a licking and yet keep on kicking. You also remind me of Rockey Balboa who was down for the count and always came back swinging. You’re to be commended for your perseverance and not cowering to the man-made narrative of today. You’re definitely my kind of guy.”Andy Woods, Th.M., J.D., Ph.D., Senior Pastor, Sugar Land Bible Church, Sugar Land, Texas
The question about whether Apostasia (Apostasy) can ever be physical is so profound and central to the question of the timing of the Rapture, and whether or not it collapses Pre-wrath, Mid and Post Tribulation Rapture and even Pre-Tribulation proponent’s arguments of my opponents, inspired me to dig even deeper into Scripture and history to prove whether or not that term could have ever meant physical departure. But wherever you stand on these three positions, or whether you even switch positions, all of them are Premillennial, and therefore doomed in the eyes of Calvin. Some of this I have seen argued by scholars, but some of it I have never seen argued before. It is also important because, as my opponents say, it hinges on whether or not it is we who are deceived! Pre-tribulation scholars and pastors are sometimes accused of knowing some Greek they learned in Seminary, and that they live in a bubble, and won’t be open to debating. So I decided that I would contact some top Greek scholars in the world, who do read and write Greek and know Ancient Classical Greek as well as Koine Greek (the New Testament), as well as dig up actual ancient manuscript translations of documents in which the Greek terms below were actually used. I was challenged to document and prove one single example in which “apostasy” is used in the English translations of Scripture ever meant physical movement or departure, both in Scripture or in any other historical context. So I took up the challenge and mantle.
In the English language, we have a lot of words in which the same word is spelled and/or pronounced the same. Perhaps the greatest example being: the word “rock” which can mean the reference to the Lord who is the rock of our salvation. But the same word could mean rock as in rock-n-roll music, are say to someone: “you rock!” It can be both literal and figurative (rock of offense or a compliment to mean strength). Analog comes to mind, plus the word can be a noun or a verb. Here are a few more examples: the word “humor (humour) can refer to liquids in the human body, but it can mean funny, or unbalanced mental condition, a mood or unreasonable caprice, or a fixed folly or vice. How about “knuckles?” We definitely need them on our fingers. “Knuckle-under” is slang to mean buckle-down to do your job well. But “knuckle-head” is an antonym of “knuckle under.” “Well-tempered” can mean a good-natured or good disposition regarding a person’s personality. Tempered steel is a heat treatment done to increase the toughness of the steel. There is even-tempered chocolate which is heated in order to stabilize it and for other products like glass, but it also refers to the physics of tuning musical instruments, where got “well-tempered scale” which means 12 equally divided semitones (half steps). However, equal does not mean equal physical width as you climb the scale or fretboard on a guitar or violin. The width of each fret gets narrower and narrower as you climb the fretboard. You can visually see this on a guitar with the metal frets. However, on a violin, they are invisible. Every time you cut a string in half at the same tuning and tension, it jumps an octave (12 semitones) and doubles in frequency, e.g., A 440 Hz, to A 880 Hz. And speaking of musical instruments, we love black notes on a piano, which enables the player to play in different keys. Black notes form what is known as a pentatonic (five) scale. We want both black notes and white notes on a piano and organ. The color of notes is piano-centric because on the guitar and stringed instruments and horns and reed instruments and singers, black and white notes, aka flats and sharps, are visually identically and indistinguishable. Though flats and sharps can refer to white notes, depending on the composition. C# Major has every single note as a sharp.
But if you transpose it down one-half step to the Key of C, there are no sharps, in which a Major Scale is all white notes. We also use the term “flat” to describe singers who are not on the pitch, who are singing notes slightly lower in frequency. We also use the term to describe a flat tire (the air has gone out). We have “Black Friday” in America, the day after Thanksgiving, where retailers go from being in the “red” financially, to being in the “black,” which is good and worthy of celebration. However, a retailer might be in the spiritually black because they made a fortune off of Santa Claus and having their customer’s children stand in line to sit on Santa’s lap to tell him what they want for Christmas from him. But the last thing we would want to be called is someone with a black heart. When we say someone is the “black sheep” in the family, it is figurative to mean rebellious or bad. But literal black sheep are good and just as good as white sheep. Both Peter and Jude describe false teachers as “for whom the blackest darkness is reserved forever.” There may be no single word, more used, in the English language which can have the very opposite meaning than the word “black” all depending on its context! Speaking of the word red: “Come now, and let us reason together, saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.” Isaiah 1:18′. But the word “red” can have opposite meanings for good or evil, just like the word apostasy if it means depart or departure! Example: Jesus himself proves this in rebuking the Pharisees:
“When it is evening, you say, «It will be fair weather; for the sky is red.» And in the morning, ‘It will be stormy today, for the sky is red and threatening. ‘ You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times.”Matthew 16:2-5
And we have all heard the expression regarding Communism: “Better dead than red!” So I can’t help but ask why our Pre-tribulation adversaries can’t interpret the signs of the times?
But there is another major problem with Santa Claus. The North Pole did not exist before Noah’s Global Flood, so there would have been no ice to place his house on, presuming he is immortal. And even if he did exist then but was mortal, he would have drown in the Flood. The real St. Nicholas was not even born until 270 A.D. and died in 343 A.D., so unless he is immortal (which he is not), he couldn’t be here today to deliver presents anyway. And when Christ returns, he will restore the earth to Garden of Eden Climate Condition, so the Lord will melt both North and South Pole IceCaps. And even the climate before the Flood there were no tornadoes or hurricanes. So there was never a place, nor will there ever be a place for Santa to land his sleigh! The real St. Nicholas only lived about 73 years and therefore mortal, not immortal, which he would have to be in order to pull off thousands of years of visiting and bringing gifts to households. And there are even more problems with the real St. Nicholas. He was Greek Orthodox which is rife with heresies. So I remained shocked that so many Dutch Reformed members in Holland and America would extol and celebrate Sinterklass Day, and corrupt Scripture even more by mutating morphing, and perverting it into Kris Kringle or Kristkind, meaning Christ Child! I inquired of the Protestant Church headquarters in the Netherlands with this question:
“Dear President Rene de Reuver,
Do Christians or Reformed Church in Holland still celebrate St. Nicholas Day (i.e., Sinterklass)? Did Abraham Kuyper?
“Dear Madam, Sir,
Thank you for your question about the celebration of Sinterklaas. In our churches the feast is not celebrated in services. But most Christians in the Netherlands celebrate it at home with their family.
Arend Jan Smits
Het Contactcentrum is bereikbaar van
Maandag t/m donderdag van 9:00 tot 21:00.
Vrijdag van 9:00 tot 16:00
T: (030) 880 1880
Here is a listing all of the Eastern Orthodox religion vs. Biblical Christianity as well: https://www.easternorthodoxchristian.com/top-20-heresies-of-orthodoxy
I also address this in my documentation on Replacement Theology and Infant Baptism vs. Christianity. So not even the real St. Nicholas was a saint! Speaking of physics (let alone common sense), Santa Claus has still another problem: he would have to be able to get to billions of housetops in 24 hours, to say nothing about how he would handle apartment buildings, and one sleigh holding billions of gifts. Plus, according to EPA there are 13 million chimneys and fireplaces in use in the U.S., let alone Europe and the rest of the world (less the those whose kids are naughty vs. nice, and less the chimneys too narrow to fit a fat Santa), alone in which there are 13,000 chimney fires per year…Santa’s beard wouldn’t catch fire in at least one of them? And just as every religion in the world is works vs. grace, being naughty or nice is works-oriented, the kids get no gifts if they are naughty. And Santa Claus is tantamount to white magic, which is just as evil as white magic, in which the Lord Jesus’s glory is shared with none other as Isaiah declared! And Paul commanded us to reject myths, not embrace them! Yet Holland, the land of Abraham Kuyper, led the way in glorifying Santa in Europe whom they called Sinterklass, and Holland is the mother-lode responsible for bringing the celebration and belief in Santa Claus to America.
But Sinterklass Day is December 5, and it was created to celebrate St. Nicholas, NOT Christ’s birth or Christmas, later moved to December 25 (the date of the birth of the sun god Mithras, thanks, or should I say no thanks to the Roman Catholic Church who Christianized that pagan holiday), to represent Christmas. And if this is not confusing enough, the Eastern Orthodox Church doesn’t celebrate Christmas until January 7 because they follow the Gregorian Calendar vs. the Julian Calendar. Speaking of Calendars, there is no Jewish Festival for the Birth of Christ. But were there a day, would rarely, be December 25 because they follow the Lunar Calendar, so the date would change every year, just like their Hannakuh Celebration which fell on December 25 in 2005 but won’t happen again until 2024. Imagine how confused Santa Claus would be to figure out which night to take his sleigh out around the world! Nevertheless, tragically, Holland is primarily responsible for bringing Santa Claus to America. Kuyper’s renouncing this would be found where?
In America, the Salvation Army dressed unemployed men as Santas in order to raise money beginning in the 1890s and has been glorify him ever since. Just a few years ago the pastor of a major Conservative First Baptist Church in Eugene, Oregon, led the entire congregation in “We know that Santa’s on his way, bringing toys and goodies on his sleigh” (“Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire”) for their Christmas service, that we witnessed in person at the church I grew up in, which shocks me to this day! Recently, Governor Huckabee’s 2021 Christmas in America includes an image of Santa and his sleigh in the air yet simultaneously he declares that Christ is the reason for the season. So we have Christians by the multitudes calling evil good, as Isaiah prophesied.
We hear the word “reed” vs. “read.” They sound the same. But reed(s) might refer to where Moses was hidden among the reeds along the Nile River as an infant. Or it might refer to reed instruments like a clarinet. But if hearing the same sounding word “read” refers to reading the Bible or an article, this too is good but with a completely different meaning. Jesus was asleep on the hay as an infant which is glorious, but if you fall asleep at the wheel of a vehicle, someone could get killed. You may try to “ice” the kicker so he will miss the field goal in a game, but you can “ice” a devil’s food cake or an angel’s food cake…totally different meanings, two of my very favorites, but these desserts have nothing to do with devils or angels. My father and brother would “shake” from Parkinson’s disease, and during the End Times Judgments, the entire earth and heavens will “shake.” (Hebrews 12:26. Matthew 24:29, Rev. 6:13)) But almost every loves a milkshake. We might love a nice “foam” mattress, but rightfully flee a false teacher “foaming” at the mouth! We might love waffles at a prayer breakfast at church, but would never want a pastor to “waffle” on sound biblical doctrine, as that would render him double-minded, which means he is unstable in all his ways! The word “mark” might mean “I hit the mark” which is good. But the “mark of the Beast” has eternally damnation written all over it, because the Beast is the coming Antichrist. We might hear the “parish” and immediately think of it as the clerical territorial jurisdiction and division of authority with specific geographical boundaries in a church denomination. But “perish,” just like “mark of the Beast” means an eternal destination of damning in the Lake of Fire. John could be a man’s name such as the Apostle John who wrote both the Book of John and the Book of Revelation Scripture, but the same word could refer to the client of a prostitute, and even still another meaning as an outhouse or restroom.
“Trust” might mean you put your trust in the Lord, but it might mean a place you store your money or assets, so they are protected. “English” could refer to the language, or it could refer to the spin you put on a billiard or ping pong ball or basketball, to curve its direction or even fool your opponent. So just like with English, the Greek language does the same thing, where the same word can have a range of meanings and even opposite meanings, and meanings that change over time, as we shall see in this treatise, in which “text without context is a pretext.” “Love” in English has four different Greek meanings and are actually completely different words. The word “saint” should be obvious to mean one thing, in the Church Age, yet it has a range of meanings. It should refer to only those who are truly born again and have made a profession of repentance unto salvation. But Roman Catholicism and the Eastern Orthodox Church primarily deems only those the Pope or Patriarch canonized are called saints plus they call the Archangel Michael a saint. But in so doing, they have redefined the meaning, contradicting Scripture. Even the world calls non-existent Santa Claus “Saint Nick.” But only one meaning of the word “saint” is the true biblical meaning. And as well shall see, apostasia and aphistemi can meaning totally different things, and, in fact, even have opposite meanings or be virtual synonyms.
So what I discovered is not just a bombshell revelation but a 7 megaton nuclear revelation to me. It may be one of my most profound discoveries in my 50 years of studying Scriptures.
First, I asked a foremost Ancient Greek Scholar, Stephen Colvin, in the United Kingdom what the original meaning of the word “apostasis” meant. He said this in his email response to me:
“Its core meaning is separation” Stephen Colvin, Dept. of Greek and Latin, University College London
My most profound initial discovery was how Hippocrates defined the word three to four centuries before Christ (460-370 B.C). Physicians to this day take the Hippocratic oath which my father also took. Hippocrates was considered the “father of Western medicine.” Here is Hippocrates own definition of apostasis (which I looked up after reading the medical definition of apostasis [apostasy]):
“ἀπόστασις/apostasis: the process of recovery from a disease is often associated with the collection and removal of morbid humours (peccant material) from the …” HIPPOCRATES, Places in Man. Glands. Fleshes. Prorrhetic 1-2. Physician. Use of Liquids. Ulcers. Hemorrhoids and FistulasLCL 482: 10-11 https://www.loebclassics.com/view/LCL482/1995/pb_LCL482.11.xml
Note Hippocrates clearly defines the word to unequivocally mean the physical removal of physical growths in the human body such as Hemorrhoids (English). I have had them, my father removed legions of them. It only takes seconds to remove one (if external), and only minutes to stitch up and suture, so not in the twinkling of an eye, but certainly not days, weeks, or years.
And here is the medical dictionary definition of “apostasis”:
“noun In old medicine: The termination or crisis of a disease by some secretion or critical discharge, in opposition to metastasis, or the termination by transfer to some other part. An apostem or abscess. The throwing off or separation of exfoliated or fractured bones.”
Fractured bones that are separated are called broken bones (i.e., what once was one bone is now two, and hence why you need cast…a virtual synonym for separate). Now contrast this with this quote by Pre-wrath Rapture defenders and Pre-tribulation adversaries:
“Moulton and Milligan’s, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament Illustrated from the Papyri and Other Non-Literary Sources, it is demonstrated that this term is only used in the political or religious defection sense—again, never used in a spatial departure sense (pp. 68–9).”
No other use of the word apostasis in any other context than political or religious? Really? Isn’t medical another sense? Isn’t physical removal spatial departure? Liddell and Scott’s lexicon A Greek-English Lexicon indicates a secondary definition meaning departure, but only applicable in the 6th Century AD, while Hippocrates used the term to be physical removal centuries before Christ. This is either fuzzy math or clever numerology! So Moulton and Milligan, Henry Liddell and Robert Scott, and all Pre wrath Rapturites that use those citations to defend their view in order oppose Pre Tribulation Rapture, are indicted by their own testimony, as both Hippocrates and Galen refute and contradict their definition. But this is not just a subjective opinion, but factual forensic evidence, and not some obscure anomaly or aberration.
Physically Separating is a Perfect Analogy
My father was a physician and performed a host of surgeries during his 36 years of licensed practice, including his 4 years of service in the military as a lieutenant and major, in charge of the medical supplies for the North African Theater in WWII in Casablanca and Naples, Italy… All my life growing up, he talked about cancer metastasizing, meaning it was spreading throughout the entire body, and usually meant it had then become terminal for the patient and too late to save the patient. The antonym of metastasis is apostasis was to separate, as in physically removing the malignant tumor which very often would be in time to save the life of the patient. And by the way, surgery only took up to a few hours, not days or years to cut away (separate the tumor). So apostasy doesn’t just mean physical departure but separation (not falling away which can and does often take time). And yes if people depart from the faith, they certainly do fall away, but that is not what the Greek word means. And even when the terms means to rebel, rebellion is precisely what Christ did with Judaism, in what was the biggest rebellion in history. But without this rebellion, NONE would be saved. And separation can be a good thing too as Paul said: “Come out from among them and be ye separate says the Lord.” 2 Corinthians 6:17 (yes physically separate). So wouldn’t this make the perfect analogy and term for Paul to use to describe the separation of the church from the malignant world, and eternally saving the saints (patients), except that it is the inverse, in which what is being removed or separated is what is healthy, whereas what is left is what is malignant?
How does this even remotely resemble “falling away?” And no Christian fathers in the Church age didn’t know this? Paul intimately knew Greek, was in Greece, and knew and debated Greeks. And Paul and Luke who was a physician was clueless to the true meaning of the word apostasis to use that word in 2 Thess. 2:3? Impossible! The more I studied this, instead of gravitating towards Pre-wrath Rapture, I actually think Paul could not have chosen a better word to describe and prove Pre-tribulation Rapture! AMEN!
I was digging even deeper into Scripture on this subject. The word “apostasia” is a subjective eisegesis interpretation of that word as “falling away.” It is NOT a literal translation. Even Calvin’s Geneva Bible translates it as “departure” NOT “falling away.” But Calvin didn’t mean physical falling away or the Rapture but departing from the faith. It is correct that that word was redefined to mean defection or rebellion from the faith. But it doesn’t matter how church fathers throughout the Church Age translated the word (except to lead more people astray). What matters is how the Apostles who authored the New Testament understood the word(s) in Greek and what the words meant in the First Century, not what we mean by the word apostasy today. If it meant falling away in the First Century, then Pre-wrath Rapture would have a case. But the word appears only twice in the New Testament. The first appearance of the Greek word apostasy is in Acts 21:21 (highlighted in bold as forsake):
“And they are informed of thee, that thou teachest all the Jews which are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, saying that they ought not to circumcise their children, neither to walk after the customs.” Acts 21:21
Apostasia fits perfectly to mean that the Jews were accusing Paul of “separating” from the law of Moses. But the English word “forsake” used in many of the most reputed English translations is NOT a correct translation of apostasia. The Greek word for forsake is ἐγκαταλείπω egkataleipō (Strong’s G1459). See the Ancient Greek
Lexilogos Dictionary Definition below under LSJ 1940. Note that its original meaning is “to leave behind.” So if you replace the word forsake in Acts 21:21 and 2 Thess. 2:3 where the word apostasy is used, with this Greek word you are plugging in “leave behind.” But left behind is what happens to everyone not raptured (not departed). The verb forsake can be good or evil depending on the context. And even though a Greek word can have opposite meanings and context is critical, it is also very important to note when meaning or interpretation is NEVER used in the original Greek. Strong’s definition (see “to leave behind” in bold font):
“ἐγκαταλείπω enkataleípō, eng-kat-al-i’-po; from G1722 and G2641; to leave behind in some place, i.e. (in a good sense) let remain over, or (in a bad sense) to desert:—forsake, leave.”
The Disciples left their nets to follow Jesus and the Israelites forsook Egypt which is good, but the people forsook Jesus and Paul which is evil. “Forsaking one to let him go into Hades, abandon unto Hades,” Acts 2:27, 31 is a righteous act. Depending on the English translation, the combined occurrences of forsake, forsaken, forsaking, and forsook are 237 times total in the Old and New Testaments. And forsaking, just like apostasia and aphistemi, can be physical or spiritual, or both.
Refuting The Pre-wrath Definition of Apostasia
I thought that discrediting the Pre-wrath definition of Apostasia was sufficient to refute this position, which it is. But it’s the definite article “the” (or “ho” in Greek), that doubly disproves their argument! Ironically, Pre-wrath defenders use “the” (or “ho”) to defend Pre-wrath Rapture during the Tribulation to mean THE Falling Away or THE Departure from The Faith. If there is only one forsaking, then by logic, both occurrences of apostasia in Scripture must be THE forsaking! But there can’t be two. And if there is only one, as in 2 Thess. 2:3, where it is used as a noun; then Acts 21:21 forsaking of Moses can’t be true, because that would make two forsakings.
Many anti-Pretribulation Rapturites clamors that you can’t use the same word for verb and noun. Yet that is precisely what they do in using apostasia as a verb in Acts 21:21 and as a noun in 2 Thess. 2:3. If 2 Thessalonians 2:3 is “the” apostasy, it would have to mean “the” one and only forsaking in all of Scripture. There could be none other! If that is true, then the Father did not forsake the Son on the Cross, making Jesus a liar because this would be a second forsaking! In truth, Christ was not just forsaken by his Father in Heaven, but by his own people, the Jews, whom he cursed in the Fig Tree Parable because they should have known of His coming as the Messiah. His being forsaken also led to the judgment of the apocalyptic siege and destruction of the Temple in 70 A.D., in Jerusalem, which led to the Great Dispersion, all because of a departure of the faith! You can’t have dispersion without a physical spatial scattering of the Jews to the ends of the earth! So if “the” apostasy means “the” forsaking, how do you outrank Christ’s Crucifixion and the Destruction of the Temple? How would you have two colossal forsakings that precede the so-called singular one and only forsaking falling away that supposedly launches the Great Tribulation?
Jesus, the Messiah, came in THE fullness of time at his genealogical birth (Matthew Chapter 1) and Galatians 4:4. And indeed His being born of a virgin, conceived by the Holy Spirit, is the only First Coming. However, the fullness of time also applies to both His First Coming as well as His Second Coming. But there is a third major forsaking, and that is the forsaking of the Jews themselves for two thousand years in what became known as Replacement Theology or Supercessionism (that the Church is Israel), which paved the way to the slaughter of millions of Jews, culminating in the Holocaust. No other so-called Christian doctrine has resulted in more devastating persecution and executions. And wouldn’t this insult Paul, too, who wrote Thessalonians because he said he was forsaken by Demas and many others? If there can only be one and only “the” forsaken, I will choose to take Jesus Christ’s being forsaken by the Father on the Cross, because without it, we are still dead in our trespasses and there would be no forgiveness of sins without this singular substitutionary atonement. The Forsaken is The Sacrifice. But the fact remains that there have been multiple forsakings throughout the history of the church!!
In Acts 21:21, certainly, the Jews also did forsake Moses both physically and spiritually, but again that is not the Greek definition being used. The context gets even more specific and forensic in detail when considering circumcision in the law of Moses. When an infant’s foreskin is surgically cut off (again conforming to the Greek medical definition of apostasis), it is physically separated and removed; it doesn’t just fall off, and this procedure is instantaneous and not prolonged. Paul was graphic and blunt when he told the Pharisees that he would that they cut the whole thing off, i.e., castrate themselves. To do this, Paul again certainly didn’t mean “I would that you take as long as it takes for the entire organ to fall off (fall away).” This would be preposterous! My father circumcised about 1,000 infant baby boys whom he had delivered. If I were to say to him: “Dad, didn’t you mean you ‘fell away’ the foreskin of the male infant?” He would rightly respond with: “What?…son, I don’t think you understand the true meaning of the word ‘circumcise.’ It can only mean ‘cut’ and ‘remove.’ If it meant ‘fall away,’ I could stand there the rest of my life, and it would NEVER fall off on its own. When you grow, up, I think I should take you with me to be a witness to actually observe the surgical medical procedure, so you will never forget what it truly means, and never again be confused!” So this is precisely what needs to be taught to every Christian who still believes the word “apostasis” means “falling away.” “Apostasis” instead, actually means physical separation (the Rapture) and therefore, it has to mean Pre-Tribulation Rapture in 2 Thess. 2:3. It is time to spiritually circumcise (cut and separate) the hearts of our brothers and sisters in Christ from this false interpretation of Scripture!
Having looked up every occurrence of the word “forsake” and its derivatives, I then spent extensive time doing a word search in Scripture in order to discover the Greek
meanings and contexts for the use of the terms “fall away,” “fallen away,” and “falling away.” All Christians, whatever your positions are on eschatology, should ask this question: “Doesn’t the Apostle Paul warn the church about falling away?” Absolutely! But it is not the word he used in Greek in 2 Thess. 2:3, even though most modern English versions interpret apostasia as falling away. Here is the Scripture (English translation of apostasia I highlighted in black font):
“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition;”2 Thess. 2:3
Pre-tribulation Rapture opponents insist that apostasia means falling away in the original Greek. It does not. However, I will concede that it can mean “revolt” and it can mean physical departure (see Ancient Greek Lexilogos Dictionary definition below). But revolts or revolutions are not always evil; they can be righteous rebellions. It is not wrong that God revolts from the Prince of Darkness and the Prince of the Power of the Air’s kingdom which is the whole earth, confirmed in the Temptation of Christ. Later, Jesus commanded Satan to physically depart from Peter when he said “get thee behind me Satan!” Just as it is incorrect to plug in “forsake” above, it is incorrect to plug in “falling away.” So I spent some time digging into Scripture and Vine’s Expository Dictionary, for the use of the terms “fall away,” “fallen away,” and “falling away.” Here is what I discovered:
Falling Away in Apostasia in the Greek Compared
All Christians, whatever your positions are on eschatology should ask this question: “Doesn’t the Apostle Paul discuss and warn the church about falling away?” Absolutely! But it is not the word he used in Greek in 2 Thess. 2:3, even though most modern transliterations translate apostasia as falling away. So I searched Blue Letter Bible for every occurrence of fall away, fallen away, and falling away. I was very surprised by what I found. It is not as though Luke or Paul didn’t know the Greek word he could have used in that passage for falling away, because he used it in many other passages when he meant falling away from the faith where the Greek word meant to depart. It could be the physical departure or spiritual departure, or a combination of both. But it wasn’t necessarily evil. In some cases, it was just a fact of physical departure with no moral implication. In other cases, it clearly was a moral use in the context. But Paul also gave details to what he meant in context, by “departure” so there remained no confusion about what he meant. So here are all of the New Testament passages which are translated as “fall away” (except the two which use the word apostasia). The word that Paul and Luke use is the Greek word ἀφίστημι (aphistēmi). But guess what? Luke was a physician, just like Hippocrates, who wrote both Luke and the Book of Acts (attributed to him by scholars).
Koine Greek was THE common language of physicians in the Roman Empire and the First Century. One-half of the only two uses of the word apostasis in the New Testament were written by Luke, and 10 out of 15 verses or two-thirds, employing the word aphistemi were penned by Luke. Plus Luke was Paul’s traveling companion who wrote the only other use of the word apostasis. So it is inconceivable to me that Luke, as a trained physician, would not know who Hippocrates was, so he would know full well the meaning of apostasis to choose that word in Acts and why he would use aphistemi in both Luke and Acts. Even the word aphistemi does not literally mean “fall away” but “departure,” or “stand apart at a distance.” “Fall away” expression normally has a negative connotation of defiling oneself (or selves). In fact, apostasia and aphistemi are almost interchangeable because they both mean “remove.” However, when the word is used figuratively or spiritually, it also certainly means a great falling away from the faith! So let’s look at the passages more closely.
The G868 is the Strongs Concordance Number for the word “aphistemi.” The word occurs 15 times. Note that 12 out of the 15 occurrences are physical departure or withdrawal. And even the three verses which I highlighted in bold that are spiritual departure would certainly also mean a physical departure. I highlighted in red font the words below in which aphistemi are the original Greek language. Here are the 15 passages:
15 Biblical Uses of the Greek ἀφίστημι (aphistēmi)
- “And she was a widow of about fourscore and four years, which departed G868 not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.” Luke 2:37
- “And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed G868 from him for a season. ” Luke 4:13
- “They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in time of temptation fall away. G868 ” Luke 8:13
- “But he shall say, I tell you, know you not whence ye are; depart G868 from me, all ye workers of iniquity.” Luke 13:27
- “After this man rose up Judas of Galilee in the days of the taxing, and drew away G868 much people after him: he also perished; and all, even as many as obeyed him, were dispersed.” Acts 5:37
- “And now I say unto you, Refrain G868 from these men, and let them alone: for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought:” Acts 5:38
- “When they were past the first and the second ward, they came unto the iron gate that leadeth unto the city; which opened to them of his own accord: and they went out, and passed through one street; and forthwith the angel departed G868 from him.” Acts 12:10
- “But Paul thought not good to take him with them, who departed G868 from them from Pamphylia, and went not with them to the work. ” Acts 15:38
- “But when divers were hardened, and believed not, but spake evil of that way before the multitude, he departed G868 from them, and separated the disciples, disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus.” Acts 19:9
- “Then straightway they departed G868 from him which should have examined him: and the chief captain also was afraid, after he knew that he was a Roman, and because he had bound him.” Acts 22:29
- “For this thing I besought the Lord thrice, that it might depart G868 from me.” 2Corinthians 12:8
- “Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from G868 the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; ” 1Timothy 4:1
- “Perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness: from such withdraw thyself. G868” 1Timothy 6:5
- “Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let G868 every one that nameth the name of Christ depart G868 from iniquity.” 2Timothy 2:19
- “Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing G868 from the living God.” Heb 3:12
Fall Away, Departing, Morally Neutral
Note particularly that the word depart is talking about a widow who worshipped the Lord, an angel, and Paul himself who all three physically departed. Surely, no one in their right mind is going to say or accuse them of falling away! I invite and entreat you to go back and plug in the phrase “fall away” in every verse above, and see how, in many cases, how farcical the meaning would then be rendered. One more thing, Acts 13:13 describes Mark as physically and spiritually leaving and abandoning Paul. The English word used is “deserted” but the Greek is “aphistemi.” Therefore, the Greek word in and of itself is morally neutral. So it all depends on the context and description surrounding the word. Departing can be a good thing or a bad thing, as is obvious in the above passages, just like the word apostasia which means separate, where separate is a morally neutral noun and verb. Imagine someone were to say to you “I am sending you an afghan.” Would you be excited for the gift, or terrorized? You would rightly ask: “Do you mean a warm cozy blanket or a Taliban Muslim who will cut off your head as a Christian?” Same with the words apostasis and aphistemi! It all depends on the context! They can have opposite or the same meanings! It’s just that “falling away” is not the root meaning of the two words. The original Greek is correct, but the translations are not translations, rather, they are private subjective interpretations, now public, as Peter warned against!
Luke the Beloved Physician use of Greek
Paul was not just Luke’s companion, but apparently also his physician whom he called “the beloved physician” (Col. 4:14). It is hard to imagine that Paul would not obtain medical counsel from Luke. Here is a list of the medical terms (in Koine Greek) that Luke used in the Book of Luke and Acts that are not used in the other three Gospels. A few terms below are used in other Scriptures, but not in a medical physician or diagnosis context. These are the exact terms in Greek that Hippocrates used, and a host of physicians since, in his medical definitions, and later by Galen (129-210 AD) of Pergamon in Turkey, the famous physician and heir apparent to Hippocrates in the Second Century after Luke. Galen also used the Greek word aphistemi: “slackness of bandages,” Galen 18 2.806. (39), in reference to Thucydides, an Athenian General and disciple of Hippocrates who also defined apostasis as separation. The two words parallel and resonate with each other like two prongs off the same tuning fork. It proves Luke’s incredible knowledge of medical terminology.
Here are the Medical Terms Luke penned in the Koine Greek Scriptures:
puretois kai dusenterio sunechomenon, “suffering from a fever and dysentery,” Acts 28:8, 9
therion wild beasts Acts 10:12. Acts 11:6, Acts 28:4-5
hudropikos, dropsy, i.e., internal water Luke 14:2
kathepsen fastened on Acts 28:3
echidna poisonous snake Luke 3:7 (figurative or spiritual), Acts 28:3 atopon improper, wicked Luke 23:41; Acts 28:6 harmful
Pimprasthai, to swell or become inflamed Acts 28:6
katapiptein fallen down Acts 28:6
astheneias want [lack] of strength, weakness, infirmity Luke 13:11-13 apolelusai fully free Luke 13:12
anorthothe make erect Luke 13:13
sunechomene pureto megalo Luke 4:38
megas as in high fevers and mikros as in slight fevers Luke 4:38
este stanched, as in stanching the bleeding Luke 8:43-44
Now Luke and Paul could have used the Greek word Πεφτώ μακριά (Peftó makriá) for “falling Away,” or Αποσκιρτώ (Aposkirtó) for “fall away,” if that is what they meant whether physical or allegorical. But neither did! But you may rightly asked, but doesn’t the New Testament use the term fallen away. Yes, but only once and not by Luke or Paul, but in Hebrews 6:6:
“If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.”Hebrews 6:6
I highlighted the in bold “fall away,” which in Greek is: “καὶ παραπεσόντας” parapíptō which Strong’s Greek Concordance assigned the number 3895, to be distinguished from Strong’s G868 above. Now if this is truly what Paul meant in 2 Thessalonians 3:2 he could easily have used this term! But it is clear from the context in Hebrews that the author is referring to a spiritual falling away, but many of not most of them would have to also physically move away from those who were faithful believers. But ironically, throughout history, and particularly in these Last Days, most churches and denominations don’t physically move when they fall away, but remain in the same building, unless, for example, because they promote the Church Growth Movement and need to move into a larger facility. The fact is, it is the remnant of true believers in sound doctrine, that are the ones who would or should physically remove themselves (i.e., depart) and come out from among them as well as those who are fleeing persecution. But the Greek word can mean either physical or spiritual falling away, as Strong’s Concordance reveals. And it is critical to further note that if Pre-wrath Rapture disciples mean “fall away” vs. physical departure, it must be THE falling away and must follow the appearance of the Antichrist. The Greek word “ho” is used for “the apostasy” in 2 Thess. 2:3, which means “the,” but most translations use the word “a” instead. So if it means “a” falling away, then the one in the Tribulation could simply be added to the legions of falling aways in the entire Church Age. So imagine using the same word “ho” when Jesus said I am “the Resurrection,” John 11:25, or “I am a way a truth and a life” John 14:5? Or imagine rendering this Scripture:
“Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;” I Timothy 4:1, as “Now a Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from a faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils,” it would be absurd and the ultimate corruption of Scripture and the original Greek. The Spirit is The only and only Holy Spirit, and the faith is only true Christianity. This kind of tampering with the true Greek meanings of these words in Scripture would then by logic, but mistranslation then mean Christ is simply a resurrection. So privately interpreting 2 Thess 2:3 would then render this as simply another “a falling away!” But if, the in case of Pre-wrath Rapture theology it means “the falling away spiritually” it would then have to mean that there is no falling away that could precede the appearance of the Antichrist. You can’t have your cake and eat it too! But in truth, falling away has collectively been going on in the church for the entire Church Age. Yes, Scripture says “evil will wax worse and worse” until and through the Tribulation and again after the Millennium for a short season. By logic, then this would have to mean there were no falling aways before the Tribulation or after the Millennium. So I tossed and turned through the night after I discovered Galen’s commentary on the Greek word Aphistemi in relation to his “slackness (looseness) of bandages” regarding Thucydides. I kept pondering this question I would ask my father who was a physician: “How tight or loose should a bandage be on a wound?” I know exactly what he would say:
“It depends on the patient, the kind of wound, and their stage in recovery.” Medical use of Loosing a Bandage
The technical meaning of aphistemi being looseness of the bandage has nothing to do with a moral question or falling away, physically or spiritually. The tightness or looseness of a bandage is not necessarily good or bad. A rope or reins on a horse could be tight or loose. Tight shortens the distance and loose increases the distance. You tighten the reins to slow down or steer the horse and loosen them to allow them to run faster, or other gaits. The literal meaning of aphistemi is to change the space or distance between the wound and bandage. Tight could be good, but too tight would be bad because it could cut off blood circulation. Loose could be good to relieve pain and pressure and increase necessary mobility. So Luke as a physician had to know this and the medical meaning of the Koine Greek word aphistemi, even if and when he used the term figuratively, or outside of a medical context. You want a tight bandage to stop the bleeding of an open wound from battle, like a tourniquet, or the patient will quickly bleed to death. But a burn victim must have looser bandages because of pain and damage to the tissue. Some patients need to have their wounds have access to air, so soft breathable gauze is used. Pressure wounds need cushioning in the bandaging. Some patients need the bandage looser because of mobility needed in work, battle, or sports.
An when the swelling recedes you can tighten the bandage. Today we have elastic synthetic bandages that they didn’t have in the First Century so you can easily adjust the looseness or tightness. As a wound heals, you can and should loosen the bandage. As a wound heals, you can and should loosen the bandage. Sometimes you don’t need pressure because you just trying to protect the wound or just have it in place to absorb pus and drain the infection. But pressure or tight bandages are sold and often needed to contain swelling, but then loosened over time as the swelling recedes. The tightness and/or looseness of bandages is both a science and an art. The word literally means the opposite of tight, as in rope. But sometimes you want the rope tight and sometimes loose. We use the word loose and slack today is slang and figurative. For example, we might say “give him some slack” meaning don’t be too hard on the person. But it might mean slacking in his or her duties. We might see that a horse’s saddle is loose, so the rider doesn’t fall off the horse and get injured, so you need to tighten the saddle.
We might say someone has a loose screw, and that would be a negative insult, someone you would not want as your physician or pastor. We might say that an abusive or power-hungry control freak pastor needs to “loosen” his grip. Both loose and slack can have a literal and figurative meaning, both positive and negative! It is clear that aphistemi in Ancient Greek refers to a physical spatial change or distance, as would happen in how loose or slack a bandage is, which Luke clearly understood. The tightness and/or looseness of bandages is both a science and an art.
To suggest and teach that aphistemi means falling away is a corruption of Greek and Scripture, false teaching, and patently absurd! Plug the true meaning of aphistemi into every use of the word in Scripture and in every context, the word makes perfect sense!
For a complete and comprehensive illumination of all of the Koine Greek definitions and applications that Luke uses in the Book of Luke and Book of Acts, please read: The Medical Language of St. Luke, by William Kirk Hobart, a Greek scholar:
Luke repeatedly replicated Hippocrates’ medical terms not just apostasis and aphistemic in Koine Greek.
I also refer you to pages 9-11 in this document by Pastor Dr. Andy Woods which elaborates on this in greater detail:
https://deanbible.org/dbmfiles/notes/2018-ChaferConf-10-Woods-Paper.pdf Four Different Greek words for Falling Away
Now Luke and Paul could have used four different Greek words: Πεφτώ μακριά (Peftó makriá) for “falling away,” or Αποσκιρτώ (Aposkirtó), καὶ παραπεσόντας” parapíptō for “fall away,” or ἐκπίπτω ekpiptō, if that is what they meant, whether physical or allegorical. Both Luke and Paul, as well as Matthew, Mark, John, and Peter, used the Greek word piptō “fell” (Strongs’ 4098) a total of 83 verses (234 verses in the combined Old and New Testaments). It means to descend from a higher place to a lower place. It could mean fell physically and/or spiritually in a negative sense (even death), but it was also used in a good sense when they fell down to worship the Lord. If apostasia means departing, it could mean from a higher place to a lower place. But if it is referring to the Rapture, it would have to mean ascending from a lower place (the earth) to a higher place (Heaven), i.e., the Resurrection and Ascension of all Christian saints. Peter and the book of Hebrews use the term “parapipto” which means to deviate from the straight path (not ascend or descend); Here is the reference in First Peter:
”For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away:”1Peter 1:24
I highlighted in bold fall away and falleth away, which in Greek is: “καὶ παραπεσόντας” parapíptō which Strong’s Greek Concordance assigned the number 3895, to be distinguished from Strong’s G868 above. The second use of fall away is the Greek word “ekpipto” (Strongs’ G1601) meaning falleth away in I Peter 1:24, and also in James 1:11. Note that the petals falling from a flower, or the entire flower falling, is morally neutral and both Scriptures mean physical falling. However, in Gal. 5:4 by Paul and Rev. 2:5 by John, they use the same Greek word “ekpipto” where it does mean a spiritual-moral falling. And just like apostasis and aphistemi, falling can be active or passive. I can fall by accident, or be pushed to fall, which is passive; but if I choose to fall away from the faith, that is active. Now if “the falling away” from the faith is truly what Paul meant in 2 Thessalonians 2:3, he could have used any of the above Greek words for falling away (parapipto, ekpipto, pipto), instead of apostasia! We must not forget that there is also a great revolt (the last one), rejection of the faith at the end of the Millennium too, so falling away can’t be unique to the beginning of The Tribulation if there is another one later. In this regard, I invite you all to go to BlueletterBible.org and type in individually each of these words in their search engine: fall, fallen, falling away, fell, and see the host of how many different kinds of fallings there are throughout Scripture. If there were only one single “The Falling Away,” how is it then possible to have legions of falling aways?
Here is the reference in Hebrews:
“ If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.” Hebrews 6:6
It is clear from the context in Hebrews 6:6 above, that the author is referring to a spiritual falling away. The Greek words listed above can mean either physical or spiritual falling away, as Strong’s Concordance reveals. And it is critical to further note that if Pre-wrath Rapture proponents mean “fall away” spiritually vs. physical departure, it must be THE falling away that must follow the appearance of the Antichrist. To reiterate, the Greek word “ho” is used for “the apostasy” in 2 Thess. 2:3 actually means “the,” but most translations use the word “a” instead. So if it is translated “a” falling away, then the one in the Tribulation could simply be added to the legions of falling aways in the entire Church Age. The Greek article “ho” is used when Jesus said I am “the Resurrection,” John 11:25, and “I am the way the truth and the life” John 14:5. But imagine replacing “ho” (the) with a. This would then render these passages as Jesus saying “I am a Resurrection,” and “I am a way, a truth, and a life.” Or imagine rendering this Scripture:
“Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;” I Timothy 4:1, as “Now a Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from a faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils,” it would be absurd and the ultimate corruption of Scripture and the original Greek. The Spirit is The only Holy Spirit, and The Faith is the only true Christianity. tampering with the true Greek meanings of these words in Scripture would then by logic, mistranslate Christ as simply “a” resurrection. Privately interpreting 2 Thess 2:3 would then render this as simply another “a falling away!” But if, in the case of Pre-wrath Rapture theology it means “the falling away spiritually,” it would then have to mean that there is no falling away that could precede the appearance of the Antichrist. It can’t be both.
But in truth, falling away has collectively been going on for the entire Church Age. To suggest and teach that aphistemi means falling away is a corruption of Greek and Scripture, false teaching, and patently absurd! Plug the true meaning to aphistemi into every use of the word in Scripture and in every context, and the word makes perfect sense! For a complete and comprehensive illumination of all of the Koine Greek definitions and applications that Luke uses in the Book of Luke and Book of Acts, please read The Medical Language of St. Luke, by William Kirk Hobart, a Greek scholar. Luke repeatedly replicated Hippocrates’ medical terms not just apostasis and Aphistemi in Koine Greek.
Stephen Colvin the reputed Ancient Greek language scholar in the UK, I cited above, said that the root word and original word was apostasis and were Classical Greek that preceded Koine Greek, though there was some overlap. The bottom line is the meaning is the same. And the New Testament was written in Koine Greek so they wouldn’t even have used the Classical Greek word apostasis but it still meant the same! However, there certainly are many Koine Greek words in the New Testament that were identical to Classical Greek. But just like the word “gay” changed its meaning over time so did apostasia or apostasy. If I said someone was gay in Elizabethan Era or sing the famous ancient Christmas carol Deck the Halls, containing the phrase “don we now in gay apparel,” as a Christian, I certainly would never say we are singing a homosexual Christmas carol, though many today that are gay do, in fact, sing it with that intent! A perfect example of Classical Greek and Koine Greek using same word is “love” in English. But there are four different words for love in Greek with completely different meanings. The English word is not wrong it just does not tell you what kind of love! And just like with the word gay, today apostasy is generally understood by most
Christians to mean falling away spiritually. But we have to go by what the Bible meant and the time the term was used! This is great because it addresses the great point and question of how Pre-wrath Rapture disciples will try to use it to refute any Pre-tribulation Rapture defender saying apostasis and apostasia don’t or can’t mean the same thing. So here is more ancient Greek proof that they do mean the same thing:
Here is the free online Ancient Greek Lexilogos Dictionary:
https://outils.biblissima.fr/fr/eulexis-web/?lemma=ἀπόστασις&dict=LSJ (scroll down to see the Ancient Greek definitions below)
SIX THINGS THAT STRUCK ME:
1. Apostasis and apostasia are virtually identical in meaning which according to Etyonline’s website apostasis is from apostanai “to stand away.” So how does one stand away without it being physical?
2. Aphistemi and apostasis are virtual synonyms.
3. Yes both words can and have been used to mean revolt, but revolt is not always evil. The American Revolution was a revolt and Christ and Paul revolted against Judaism. Thank God!
4. And if it means departure, it likewise can be evil or righteous, or simply neutral (like departing from a city). Righteous if departing evil, and evil if departing from the faith.
5. NEITHER term apostasis or apostasia means FALLING AWAY!
6. Aphistemi definition does not even ONCE contain the word fall or falling away or fallen!
The bottom line both can mean physical distance. Both can mean departure. Both can mean revolt, meaning both can be synonyms. Departures from the faith are like bricks in a chimney. And there will be a final last brick on the top to complete the last person and enemy of Christ! But falling away from the faith is the whole chimney and covers the entire Church Age and entire Tribulation, and a short period of revolt after the Millennium when Satan is unbound and released to deceive the nations one last time, not a single last brick that has to be in place before which the Antichrist appears! QED, or as Scripture records about Stephen when he was being stoned, nothing he said could be refuted!
Here are the definitions of Apostasis, Apostasia, and Aphistemi in the Ancient Greek Lexilogos Dictionary from their website:
LSJ 1940 Apostasis
ἀπόστασις εως, ἡ, (< ἀφίστημι) causing to revolt, συμμάχων Th. 1.122 ; Ἰώνων ἀπὸ τῆς Λακεδαιμονίων συμμαχίας Arist. Ath. 23.4. (< ἀφίσταμαι) emanation, εἰδώλων ἀποστάσεις Epicur. Fr. 320.
slackness, of bandages, Gal. 18(2).806.
defection, revolt, ἀπό τινος Hdt. 3.128 ; τὴν Κυπρίων ἀ. πρῆξαι Id. 5.113 ; τὴν Αἰγύπτου ἀ. παρασκευάζεσθαι Id. 7.4 ; ἀ. ἐκ τῆς ξυμμαχίας Th. 5.81 ; ἀ. πρός τινα Id. 1.75 ; διπλῆν ἀ. ἀποστήσεσθαι Id. 3.13 ; ἀ. τῶν Ἀθηναίων, for ἀπὸ τ. Ἀ., Id. 8.5 ; but τὰς Μεσσηνίων ἀ. Pl. Lg. 777c.
departure from, βίου E. Hipp. 277 ; separation of
effect from cause, Procl. Inst. 35 ; giving up, cession, ἀ. τῶν
κτημάτων D. 19.146 ; desisting from, disuse of, φάσεως S.E. P. 1.192 ; τῶν ἀπροαιρέτων Arr. Epict. 4.44.39.
distance, ἁ ἀφ’ ἡμῶν ἀ. Archyt. 1 ; ἀφεστάναι τῇ αὐτῇ ἀ. ᾗπερ… Pl. Phd. 111b ; ἀπόστασιν ὅσην ἀφεστηκὼς γίγνεται Id. R. 587d, cf. 546b ; ἐκ μικρᾶς ἀ. Arist. Aud. 800b7 ; τῇ ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἀ. Id. HA 503a21 ; ἐκ τῶν ἀ. according to their distances, Id. Cael. 290b22 ; of time, κατὰ τὴν πρὸς τὸ νῦν ἀ. Id. Ph. 223a5 ; ἐξ ἀποστάσεως at a certain distance, Plb. 3.114.3 ; ἐν ἀποστάσει Id. 3.113.4, Phld. Herc. 19.25 ; κατ’ ἀποστάσεις Hanno Peripl. 13.
Rhet., employment of detached phrases, Hermog. Id. 1.10, Aristid. Rh. 1 p. 462S., Philostr. VS 1.9.1 (pl.), Ep. 73.
lapse, declension, Plot. 1.8.7, 5.1.1.
place where something is put away, repository,
storehouse, Str. 17.1.9, Philippid. 14, Heraclid. Pol. 72.
Medic., suppurative inflammation, throwing off the peccant humours left by fever, etc., Hp. Epid. 3.4 (pl.), Aret. SD 1.9, Aristid. Or. 47 (23).68. of diseases, transition from one to another, Hp. Epid. 1.6 ; στραγγουριώδης ἀ. ib. 3.1αʹ.
lesion of continuity, Gal. 18(2).820.
degree of heat, cold, etc., Id. 11.561, al.
LSJ 1940 Apostasia
ἀποστασία ἡ, late form for ἀπόστασις, defection, revolt, v.l. in DH. 7.1, J. Vit. 10, Plu. Galb. 1 ; esp. in religious sense, rebellion against God, apostasy, LXX Jo. 22.22, 2 Ep. Th. 2.3.
departure, disappearance, Olymp. in Mete. 320.2.
distinguishing, c. gen., Elias in Cat. 119.7.
distance, Archim. Aren. 1.5.
LSJ 1940 Aphistemi
ἀφίστημι A. causal in pres. and impf., in fut. ἀποστήσω, and aor.1 ἀπέστησα, as also in aor.1 Med. (v. infr.) : — put away, remove, keep out of the way, τὸ ἀσθενέστατον τοῦ στρατεύματος X. HG 7.5.23 ; ἄχος A. Ch. 416 (lyr.) ; of diseases, Dsc. 2.96, Gal. 13.846 ; τὰ συγκείμενα ἀ. ἀπ’ ἀλλήλων Pl. Plt. 282b ; ἀ. τῆς ἐλάας τὸν φλοιόν Thphr. CP 3.3.2 ; ἀ. τινὰ λόγου hinder from…, E. IT 912 ; ἀ. τὰς τῶν πολεμίων ἐπιβουλάς frustrate them, Th. 1.93 ; ἀ. τὸν
ἄρχοντα deposehim, X. HG 7.1.45 ; — aor. Med., Ἀργείων δόρυ πυλῶν ἀπεστήσασθε removed it from your own gates, E. Ph. 1087 ; — in Hdt. 9.23 ἀποστήσαντες, = ἀποστάντες, having retired. cause to revolt, of allies, Id. 8.19, Ar. Eq. 238, Th. 1.81 ; τινὰ ἀπό τινος Hdt. 1.76, 154, etc. ; τινά τινος And. 3.22. in geom. constructions, cut off, Procl. Hyp. 6.7.
weigh out, X. Smp. 2.20 ; ἀποστησάτωσαν τὰ χρυσία IG 7.303.19 (Oropus) ; pay, δραχμὰς ηʹ ἀργυρίου UPZ 93.2 (ii BC) ; also in aor.1 Med., μὴ… ἀποστήσωνται Ἀχαιοὶ χρεῖος lest they weigh out (i.e. pay in full) the debt, Il. 13.745, cf. IG1². 91.20, al. ; — in strict sense of Med., ἀποστήσασθαι τὸν χαλκόν to have the brass weighed out to one, D. 49.52. — Hom. has it trans. only in l.c. Med., give a final decision (or break up, dismiss the assembly), ῥήτρα ap. Plu. Lyc. 6. B.
intr., in Pass., as also in aor.2 ἀπέστην, imper. ἀπόστηθι Ar. Th. 627, ἀπόστα Men. 375 ; pf. ἀφέστηκα in pres. sense, sync. in pl. ἀφέσταμεν, στατε, -στᾶσι, as in inf. ἀφεστάναι, part. ἀφεστώς, ῶσα, -ός or -ώς ; plpf. ἀφεστήκειν, Att. -κη Pl. Tht. 208e ; fut.
Med. ἀποστήσομαι E. Hec. 1054, Th. 5.64, etc. (while aor.1 Med. is causal (v. supr.)) ; for fut. ἀφεστήξω v.h.v. : — stand away or aloof from, keep far from, ὅσσον δὲ τροχοῦ ἵππος ἀφίσταται Il. 23.517 ; οὐ μέν κ’ ἄλλη γ’ ὧδε γυνὴ… ἀνδρὸς ἀφεσταίη Od. 23.101 ; ἀποστᾶσ’ ἐκποδών E. Hel. 1023 ; ἐς ἄλλο σχῆμ’ ἀ. βίου Id. Med. 1039 ; ἀποσταθῶμεν πράγματος τελουμένου A. Ch. 872 ; ὡς γραφεὺς (or βραβεὺς) ἀποσταθείς E. Hec. 807 ; μακρὰν τόποις καὶ χρόνοις ἀ. DS. 13.22 ; hence in various relations, ἀφεστάναι φρενῶν lose one΄s wits, S. Ph. 865 ; φύσεος Ar. V. 1457 (lyr.) ; οὐδενὸς ἀποστήσονται ὅσα ἂν δίκαια λέγητε depart from, object to right proposals, Th. 4.118 ; ἀ. φόνου E. Or. 1544 ; ἀ. ἀρχῆς to be deposed from office, Pl. Lg. 928d ; simply, resign, SIG 527.105 (Crete, iii BC) ; ἀ. τῶν πραγμάτων, τῆς πολιτείας, etc., withdraw from business, politics, have done with it, D. 10.1, 18.308, etc. ; ἔργων ἢ πόνων ἢ κινδύνων shun them, Isoc. 4.83, cf. X. HG 7.5.19, etc. ; ὧν εἷλεν ἀποστάς giving up all claim to what he had won (at law), D. 21.181 ; τῶν αὑτῆς Id. 19.147, cf. 35.4 ; ἀφίστασθαι τῶν τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ ib. 44 ; οὐδενὸς τῶν ἀνηκόντων τῇ πόλει Inscr.Magn.53.65 ; τὴν πολιτείαν… τὴν ἀφεστηκυῖαν τοῦ μέσου πλεῖον further removed from…, Arist. Pol. 1296b8 ; ἀποστὰς τῶν
πατρῴων Luc. DMort. 12.3 ; ἀ. ἐκ Σικελίας withdraw from the island, give
up the expedition, Th. 7.28 ; retire, ἐς Ἰθώμην Id. 1.101 ; rarely c. acc., avoid, shrink from, τὸν ἥλιον X. Cyn. 3.3 ; τὸν πόλεμον Id. An. 2.5.7 ; τινάς E. Fr. 1006 ; πυγμήν Philostr. Gym. 20 (prob. cj.). in Prose, ἀ. ἀπό τινος revolt from…, Hdt. 1.95, 130, etc. ; τινός Id. 2.113 ; οὐκ ἀποστήσομαι ἀπὸ τοῦ δήμου Ἀθηναίων IG1². 39.21 ; but Ἀθηναίων τοῦ πλήθους ib. 10.22 ; also ἀ. εἴς or πρός τινας, Hdt. 2.30, 162, cf. X. An. 1.6.7 ; ἐς δημοκρατίαν ἀ. Th. 8.90 ; abs., revolt, Hdt. 1.102, etc. ; ὑπό τινος at his instigation, Th. 8.35 (ἀπό codd.). ἀ. τινί make way for another, give way to him, E. Hec.1054, D. 8.37. c. gen., shrink from, τῶν κινδύνων Isoc. 9.29 ; also c. inf., shrink from doing, ἀπέστην τοῦτ’ ἐρωτῆσαι σαφῶς E. Hel. 536. abs., stand aloof, recoil from fear, horror, etc., τίπτε καταπτώσσοντες ἀφέστατε; Il. 4.340 ; πολλὸν ἀφεσταότες 17.375 ; παλίνορσος ἀπέστη 3.33, Pi. O. 1.52, P. 4.145 ; ἐγὼ οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον ἀ. Pl. Tht. 169b, cf. D. 19.45, etc. ; desist, μὴ νῦν ώμεθα Pl. Lg. 960e ; δοῦλος ἀφεστώς a runaway, Lys. 23.7. Medic., ἀφίσταται, = ἀπόστασις γίγνεται, εἰς ἄρθρα Hp. Aph. 4.74 ; ἀ. ὀστέον exfoliates, ib. 6.45 ; also ἀ. ἀπὸ τῶν ὀστῶν Pl. Ti. 84a ; τὸ δέρμα ἀ. X. Eq. 1.5 ; also, project, stand out, ὦτα ἀφεστηκότα PLond. 3.1209.12 (i BC).
to be separated by the formation of an abscess, Gal. 11.116, al. (also in Act., τὸ πύον ἀφίστησι 7.715)